Serious injury or death if you do not think about electrical safety during your work
If direct or indirect contact occurs with an electricity source will be sufficient to power an electric shock through the skin, muscles or even your hair.
The minimum current at which a person can feel is dependent on the type of power source (AC or DC) and of the frequency.
A person may be at least 1 mA (rms) of AC at 60 Hz, while at least 5 mA for DC resist.
Here it depends on how thick your skin is on your hands.
So do not go to work without really thinking about electrical safety.
So think about Electrical Safety when you work whit it.
Have you a story to tell about electrical safety click here.
If you do not sweat it may be that you do not feel anything when you touch a wire or handling where electricity power is.
There are people that this thread can grab them without feeling a shock.
"Under dry conditions, the resistance of the human body to 100,000 ohms"
If you sweat a lot, you'll feel more electricity shock.
Electrical safety is very important to properly think about.
More than or equal to 60 mA of AC (RMS), 60 Hz or 300 to 500 mA DC can lead to fibrillation.
When you touch the wires you will get skin damage or fibrillation which may lead to cardiac arrest.
A sustained electric shock from AC at 120 V, 60 Hz is an especially dangerous source of ventricular fibrillation because it usually exceeds the lower threshold, while not sufficient initial energy gives to the person to move away from the source to come.
However, the potential seriousness of the shock depends on paths through the body that the current decreases.
Death caused by an electric shock is called electrocution.
This does not happen when you do good and precautions in the field of electrical safety.
If the voltage is less than 200 V, then the human skin, in particular as the stratum corneum, the largest contribution to the impedance of the body in a macro shock, the transmission of current between two contact points on the skin.
If the voltage is above 450-600 V, then there will be an electrical breakdown of the skin.
If an electrical circuit is established by electrodes introduced into the body, without the skin, then it is possible lethality is much greater than if there is a circuit through the heart.
This is known as a microshock.
Currents of only 10 uA may be sufficient to cause fibrillation in this case.
This is a problem in modern hospitals when the patient is connected to multiple devices.
Burns from resistance, large and deep burns.
So we can not say enough Electrical Safety is where you need to think like you with electricity to work.
Voltage levels of 500 to 1000 volts, usually cause internal combustion due to the large energy.
(Which is proportional to the length multiplied by the square of the voltage divided by the resistance)
Damage due to flow through tissue heating.
Ventricular fibrillation and an internal supply voltage (110 or 230 V), 50 or 60 Hz alternating current (AC) through the chest for a fraction of a second may lead to ventricular fibrillation at currents of 60 mA.
With direct current (DC), there is over 300 to 500 mA is required.
If the power goes straight to the heart (eg, via a cardiac catheter or other kind, of electrode) with a lower current of less than 1 mA (AC or DC) can still occur fibrillation.
If there is not treated immediately by means of defibrillation, fibrillation is usually fatal, because all heart muscle cells move independently of one another instead of co-ordinated by pulses which are necessary to pump blood, and to maintain the circulation of the blood.
Above 200 mA, muscle contractions are so strong that the heart muscle can not move, but these conditions are preventable through fibrillation.
Neurological effects of current can cause interference with nervous control, in particular in the heart and into the lungs.
Repeated or severe electric shock which does not lead to death has been shown to cause neuropathy.
Recent research has shown that the functional differences in neural activation of the spatial working memory and implicit learning the oculomotor tasks are measured at electric shock victims.
When the current in a way that goes through the head with enough power loss of consciousness almost always occurs swiftly.
large company found that 80 percent of the electrical injuries, burns
caused by sparks has.
"Under dry conditions, the resistance of the human body as 100,000 ohms".
damaged skin, the resistance of the body drop to a resistance of 1000
Ohms, "adding that power flow skin quickly damaged"
resistance of the human skin is reduced to 500 ohms.
The International Electrotechnical Commission gives the following values for the total body impedance of a hand to hand circuit for dry skin, and large contact surfaces, 50 Hz AC power
(The columns show the distribution of the impedance in the population profile again;
For example, at 100 V 50% of the population has an impedance of 1875Ω or less):
Points of entry:
macro shock - Electrical Safety:
Through the intact skin and throughout the body.
Flow from arm to arm, or between an arm and a foot, through the heart, therefore it is much more dangerous than current between a leg and the ground.
Micro Shock - Electrical Safety:
Very small power source with a path directly to the heart tissue.
The shock should be administered from the skin directly to the heart as a pacemaker or a guide wire, conductive catheter etc. connected to a power source.
This is a theoretical risk largely all the modern devices used in these situations are more protected from such currents.
Electrical Burn - Electrical Safety:
An electrical burn is a burn caused by current through the body that cause rapid damage.
In the United States, there are approximately 1,000 deaths per year due to electrical injuries,
with a mortality rate of 3-5%.
Electrical burns are different from thermal or chemical burns, and they cause a lot of subcutaneous damages
They can only lead to damage of the surface, but more often are deeper under the skin tissues severely damaged.
Consequently, electrical burns often difficult to accurately diagnose and many people underestimate the severity of the burn.
In extreme cases, electric shocks to the brains, the heart, and damage to other organs arise.
Pathophysiology - Electrical Safety:
Electric three factors determine the severity of the damage caused by electrical burns:
voltage, current and resistance.
The severity of the combustion will also depend on the route of current through the body.
General: the path of the stream leaving the path of the least resistance in the human body
- These are in the first place, the blood vessels, nerves, muscles, skin, tendons, bone and fat.
Usually in electrical injuries to the outer legs, damage, but also more critical parts of the body may be affected, and resulting in serious complications can occur, when the body comes into contact with an electric source, it becomes a part of the electrical current.
As such, the flow arrives at a point and an output at two different sites on the body.
The point of entry has a tendency to be depressed and to its leathery while the wound is usually more extensive and explosive.
It is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis of an electrical burn to give because only the entrance and exit wounds are visible and internal damages.
Causes and classification of Electrical burns can be caused by a variety of ways, such as touching or grabbing of live objects, short circuit, inserting fingers in sockets, and fall into electrified water.
Lightning strikes are a cause of electrical burns, but this is less common.
With advances in technology, electrical injuries are becoming more common and are the fourth leading cause of work-related traumatic deaths.
One-third of all electrical power flow and most of the trauma injuries are work-related, and more than 50% of these injuries are a result of direct contact.
Electrical burns can be classified into six categories, and any combination of these categories can be present in an electrical burn victim:
Low voltage - Electrical Safety:
A burn by contact with a power supply of 500 V or less is classified as a low voltage burn.
The current at this voltage is not sufficient to cause tissue damage at the site to cause except at the point of contact.
This type of combustion can be mild, superficial or severe depending on the contact time.
High voltage burns - Electrical Safety:
This burn is very serious if the victim makes direct contact with the high voltage supply and the damage is in orbit throughout the body.
Exterior injuries are misleading because most damage under the skin.
In this case, subdermal tissue severely damaged.
Arc Burn - Electrical Safety:
This type of combustion is created when electrical energy passes from a high ohmic region having a low resistance region.
No contact is necessary because it burns with a bow; electricity ionizes air particles around the circuit.
The generated heat can be as high as 4,000 degrees Celsius - hot enough to vaporize metal and clothing of a victim flame to grasp.
A form of explosion expels excess energy of the arc.
In addition, a high ampere arc produced by a pressure wave 1000 pounds of pressure.
This can throw the victim and cause serious injuries.
Flash fires - Electrical Safety:
Flash burns caused by electric arcs that go over the skin.
The intense heat and light of an arc flash can cause severe burns.
Although skin burns largely superficial and covers a large area, will tissues under the skin generally intact and untouched.
Flame burn - Electrical Safety:
Associated with flash and arc burns, flame burns are caused by contact with objects that were ignited by an electrical source.
Oral burns - Electrical Safety:
This is caused by biting or sucking on electrical cords, and it most often happens with children.
Electrical power is usually from one side of the mouth of the child to the other, making possible deformation occurs
Treatment First Aid - Electrical Safety:
An electrical burn patient should not be touched or handled until the source of power is removed.
Next, the stability of the patient can be determined.
If the patient signs and symptoms of altered mental status displays, such as unconsciousness, immediately activate the emergency medical system.
Because Electrical injuries often go beyond burns, will arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation.
If the patient is unconscious, assess for circulation, if no pulse is detected to be going on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to customize and use an automated external defibrillator, if available until emergency medical personnel arrive and take over.
If the patient is stable, alert, awake, and focused on the person, place, time and event and has no life-threatening injuries, the burned skin are soaked in cold water for a period of about 10 minutes.
You can choose to lotions or ointments that can help protect the damaged tissue and soothe the pain to apply.
The effectiveness of burn ointments is debated.
Then a sterile gauze loosely around the burn and should visit his or her doctor or go to an emergency department of a hospital, if the patient's condition deteriorates.
Regularly replace the gauze with new ones and bring prescribed medication as appropriate too. An electrical burn patient has a lower BSA affected than other patients with burns, but complication risks are much higher due to internal injury.
There is often damaged internal tissue is present and this requires hospitalization.
If not treated, it can lead to damaged tissue complications (such as gas gangrene of dead tissue or loss of blood supply to the limbs) and the damaged body parts may need to be amputated.
Electrical fires have an effect on most vital body and be accompanied by a number of other electrical related injuries:
Damage to the veins and arteries that ischemic necrosis.
Involuntary contraction of muscles caused by electrical interference that can lead to fractures and dislocations.
Interference with the electrical conductivity of organs such as the heart and nerves.
This may lead to seizures, severe lung damage as a result of central nervous system damage, and to a cardiac arrest.
Powerful propulsion of the body, producing such as spinal injuries and bone fractures.
These lesions are treated in addition to the combustion itself.
Treatment of severe burn wounds requiring skin grafting, debridement, excision of dead tissue, and the repair of damaged organs.
Killswitch - Electrical Safety:
A kill switch, also known as an e-stop, is a security mechanism that is used for closing a device in an emergency situation in which it can not be closed down in the usual way.
In contrast to a normal switch-off switch / procedure, all of which systems orderly closes and switches the device off without damage, a kill switch is designed and configured for the complete breakdown of the operation at all costs, and are operable in a manner that is fast, simple (so even a panic user with impaired executive function may work), and, usually, obvious even an untrained operator or a bystander.
Many kill switches feature a removable barrier or other protection against accidental activation (e.g. a plastic cover that must be lifted or glass that must be broken).
Kill switches are often characterized as part of the mechanisms by which the normal or foreseeable misuse could result in injury or death;
Physical world applications
A similar system, usually called a dead man switch, as the name suggests, is a device designed to stop the machine in case the human operator is no longer able and is a form of fail-safe.
They are often used in:
locomotives, tower cranes, hoists, lawn mowers, tractors, jet skis, outboard motors, snowblowers and snowmobiles.
if it is used for sealing of vehicles and machinery, if the driver loses control or ejected, then it is called a deadman button.
A common example of this would be if the kill switches used by boaters where a cord connecting the kill switch on the operator (usually by their life jackets), and if the operator is thrown overboard in an accident, the cord will cause the switch pulling and immediately shut the engine off the boat.
This prevents it from becoming a revolving vessel that could impose a threat to other vessels or swimmers at sea, and the user can swim back to the ship and re-boarding.
A kill switch is also used for gasoline pumps or others device that pumps large amounts of explosive or flammable chemicals provides.
There is often a kill switch for all pumps at a gas station.
The kill switch is also used for things like industrial band saws and belt sanders.
Kill switches are also available at schools that use electrically powered tools such as drills and wood / metal lathes.